Black holes are invisible as they do not emit any light, but their presence can be inferred by observing their effects on nearby matter.
The region surrounding a black hole from which no light can escape is called the “event horizon.” The event horizon marks the boundary beyond which anything that gets too close is inevitably drawn into the black hole. Beyond the event horizon, the gravity of the black hole is so strong that not even light can escape.
Scientists have developed various methods to indirectly observe black holes, such as by tracking the motion of stars that are close to the black hole or by observing the X-rays emitted by hot gas that is being pulled into the black hole. These observations have allowed scientists to create images of the black hole “shadow,” which is the silhouette of the black hole against the background radiation.
For example, in 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration released the first direct image of a black hole, which showed the shadow of the black hole in the center of the galaxy M87. The image confirmed the predictions of Einstein’s theory of general relativity and provided a new window into the study of black holes.
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