TWO PART ASSIGNMENT
**Write Two-100 word replies to the two (2) individual discussion responses ** Use APA 6 formatting and citation standards. Should be 2 different posts. Each post is numbered and has a name.
The primary post(s) are provided as an attached file.
Assignment Details: To help you with your discussion, please consider the following questions:
Use APA 6 formatting and citation standards: Attached is course overview Labeled ("sample week4 ip)
Review and reflect on the knowledge you have gained from this course. Based on your review and reflection, write at least 3 paragraphs on the following:
1. Initial Question: Leroy thinks it is important to use a set of steps from an established change model to guide the change process. He has recommended the OD Action Research model, Appreciative Inquiry, and Kotter's 8-Step model as potential alternatives. But the VP of HR wants to know all of the details and is also concerned about the potential resistance to change at Red Carpet, so Leroy thinks it's important to discuss this as well. Red Carpet is seeking long-term success with this change, so Leroy would like you to include a forward-thinking statement regarding the future of Red Carpet after the change. In no time, you and Leroy will be riding the elevator to the 27th floor with a beautiful view of Philadelphia, and he is confident that your collaborative effort will be well-received.
Review the Red Carpet scenario for this course, and with your classmates, discuss the following questions about Red Carpet’s change management plan:
· In your opinion, which one of the following change models will be best for Red Carpet's change process: OD Action Research model, Appreciative Inquiry, or Kotter's 8-Step model?
· What interventions would you recommend to address the challenges at Red Carpet?
· Considering the organizational culture of Red Carpet, how could you help the organization use communication to overcome resistance to change?
· How will you evaluate the success of the change process at Red Carpet?
Kotter's 8-Step model best fits Red Carpet's change process. This model provides a structured and systematic approach to change management and is widely recognized as a successful model for leading change. The eight steps of the model include "establishing a sense of urgency, forming a powerful coalition, creating a vision for change, communicating the vision, empowering others to act on the vision, creating short-term wins, consolidating gains and anchoring new approaches, and establishing ongoing mechanisms for change" (Cameron & Green, 2019). By following these steps, Red Carpet can ensure that the change process is well-planned, effectively communicated, and supported by all stakeholders and that the change is sustainable over time.
The challenges faced by Red Carpet can be addressed through a combination of interventions aimed at improving efficiency, increasing customer satisfaction, and enhancing the company's reputation. Firstly, the company should invest in technology and training to improve the speed and accuracy of its customer service operations. This will help reduce wait times and improve the quality of customer interactions, which will help increase customer satisfaction and improve the company's reputation (Lewis, 2019). Secondly, the company should focus on improving the quality of its products and services. This can be done by regularly monitoring and collecting customer feedback and investing in ongoing research and development efforts. This will help ensure that the company can stay ahead of the competition and remain relevant to its customers. Finally, Red Carpet should focus on improving its marketing and communication strategies to increase awareness of its products and services and to build its brand (Lewis, 2019). This can be achieved through social media, online advertising, and other digital marketing tactics, as well as through traditional marketing techniques such as print ads, direct mail, and public relations.
To help Red Carpet use communication to overcome resistance to change, I recommend that the organization ensure that all stakeholders have access to information regarding the change process, its objectives, and expected outcomes. Additionally, I recommend that the organization create an open dialogue between management and employees about the changes taking place so that everyone can be informed and engaged in the process (Lewis, 2019). Furthermore, I recommend that Red Carpet cultivate a culture of trust and collaboration to support the change process.
To evaluate the success of the change process at Red Carpet, I recommend using both quantitative and qualitative methods. On the quantitative side, I measure performance indicators such as customer satisfaction, employee engagement and turnover, financial performance, and operational efficiency. On the qualitative side, I would monitor changes in the organization's culture through surveys and interviews with stakeholders. I would also implement a feedback loop to measure the effectiveness of the interventions implemented as part of the change process.
The Kotter 8-step model would be the best course of action given the Red Carpet’s challenges and much needed changes. When an organization such as the Red Carpet faces a need for change, it can have a significant impact on management, employees, and shareholders. The Red Carpet requires some systematic changes. Kotter’s 8-step model clearly lays out a well-developed path to change that will address the Red-Carpet challenges.
Creating and communicating a sense of urgency and why changes are needed. During this step, stakeholders will need to be prepared for the required changes and encourage them to participate in the changes. Stakeholders will need to identify the existing challenges within the Red Carpet and acknowledge them. This can be done using the SWOT analysis method. Open discussions will need to take place explaining the reasons for the changes.
Building a Guiding Coalition
“For changes to have lasting success, marshalling of resources to implement the change will take a coalition of key players (Kotter, J. 2006).” Red Carpet Leaders alone cannot successfully implement an organizational change by themselves. This will take well respected stakeholders to help collaborate, communicate, and disseminate the necessary change.
Form a Strategic Vision
Well respected key stakeholders will need to communicate how the future will be different from the past to help employees understand and visualize before they are able to get buy-in. Initiatives will need to be thoroughly communicated and demonstrate how they support that strategic vision.
Enlist a Volunteer Army
The amount of changes required in the Red Carpet are a large-scale change or transformational that can only happen when the majority of stakeholders rally around a common goal or opportunity. Stakeholders will have to want to actively or voluntarily participate for much needed change to occur. “Collectively, they must be unified in the pursuit of achieving the goal together (Kotter, J. 2006).”
Enable Action By Removing Barriers
Obstacles that are found to be in the way or challenges preventing change from occurring will be required to be removed. This will allow stakeholders to collaborate effectively and efficiently to make an impact across the Red Carpet.
Generate Short Term Wins
Achieving short term wins will allow stakeholders to get results and increase confidence in the necessary changes and help move towards the strategic vision of the Red Carpet. All short-term wins will need to be identified, captured, recognized, and communicated frequently. Tracking progress will help energize stakeholders and increase necessary momentum.
Sustained acceleration will be necessary by making sure that the stakeholders are working diligently to achieve both the strategic vision and change goals while keeping track of the progress. The coalition will need to keep track of what worked well and what things didn’t work so well. Unnecessary procedures will need to be identified and eliminated during this step. Red Carpet leaders will need to continue communicating their vision and the benefits of the short-term wins helping them achieve the desired organizational change while maintaining or increasing momentum.
Communicating and demonstrating the difference between the new changes versus the old ways of doing business will help the Red Carpet become stronger and implement the change. Internal system process will be required to evaluate new operating procedures to facilitate new behaviors and the new ways of doing business.
With the necessary changes within the Red Carpet a detailed implementation plan will need to be created, communicated, and passed down to the lowest levels. The implementation plan would need to include the 5 W’s. Who: At the highest levels of the Red Carpet the management plan will need to be created. HR will play a significant role in the planning phases and with the implementation of the plan. What: The plan will have to include all stakeholders and getting them onboard with the change plan. Contingency plans will need to be included in all phases of the change plan. When: Change should not occur until the plan is completed by the change plan team. How: Red Carpet leaders will need to commit their change plan in writing for all stakeholders to see. Why: Communicating why significant change is required will be necessary and the prioritization of any necessary resources to prevent any additional or substantive costs to the Red Carpet.
Overcoming Resistance to Change
Establishing effective communication with all stakeholders will be key to resistance to change. This can take the form of using company technology for stakeholders to communicate with all levels of leadership and to ask questions when they are in doubt or don’t understand why the need for change. The use of meetings such as town-halls, or all-hands, or a collaborative media board will help aid in the resistance to changes. Management periodically checking-in with stakeholders will help see them making necessary changes. All lines of communication will be necessary for Red Carpet leaders, managers, and stakeholders.
Evaluating the Success of Change
The Red Carpet would benefit from leaders, management, employees, and customers seeing the noticeable changes in the way they operate. Conducing frequent internal audits from a Quality Assurance and Quality Control Team will help ensure that changes are taking place or identifying challenges in system processes causing delays in a service or process. Stakeholder, Shareholder, and customer reviews will help demonstrate the success or failure of new operating procedures. These evaluations will help leaders and managers to see and hear that changes are working.
· Which change model will be the best for Red carpet’s change?
In my opinion I believe that the Kotter’s 8-step model will be best fit for Red Carpet because it coincides with all the company’s concerns, values and expectations both Leroy and VP of the HR. This model consists of a systematic change process. This system can help to correspond with the employees, especially the ones that have a challenge of getting on board and not being resistant to the goals and the success of the company in the long run. When using this model company have been known to have great success and are able to achieve all their goals.
· What interventions would you recommend to address the challenges at Red Carpet?
First, I would recommend an open-door policy for communication to be able to address all needs and concerns. Then I would address all the challenges that Red Carpet have one by one in order to get a handle on things so that we can be operating in the right direction for the good of the company. I would sit down with each department to get all their concerns and ask how they think we can make it better. After we speak with each department and employee, we will make an evaluation on how we are going to move forward and make recommendations that we will implement and expect every person to abide by. Therefore, each employee will be properly trained, tested and will sign off on the information that was given to them. Everything will be documented that you read, understood, passed and signed.
· Considering the organizational culture of Red Carpet, how could you help the organization use communication to overcome resistance to change?
Again, the most important process that we can do is to be able to communicate often so that everyone understands what the expectations are. We want to be able to listen first and talk second. Then we must communicate the reason for the change because we are about to boost the morale of the whole company. We want everyone to get excited about the new changes that are coming, and that will be put in place for the good of the company. We do not want anyone to be resistant to the changes that will occur, and we do not want anyone to be hesitant of this process. We want to include all employees and even have Team Leads that will help to implement the changes.
· How will you evaluate the success of the change process at Red Carpet?
Finally, we want to keep track of a week and monthly report of how Great of a job that we are doing. The change processes will come in segments so that it will not be a overwhelming at one time, and finally on a periodic basis we will have practice exercises that will help each employee get used to the process of how things will be done going forward.
BADM370 – Quality Management
Quality Training Manual for ABC Company
February 6, 2023
Dr Thomas Joseph
Table of Contents
I. Introduction 3
· History of quality management evolution 3
· Why quality 4
II. Role of Leadership 4
· Strategic impact and leadership roles 5
· Metrics performance 6
III. Quality Strategies and Tools 10
· Customer expectations 11
· Designing quality 11
· Defining metrics 12
· Mistake proofing 14
· Kaizen methods 14
· Six Sigma 15
IV. Quality Tactics in Supply Chain and Logistics 16
· Internal Customer 16
· External “vendor” Customer 17
V. References 19
This training manual for ABC Company has been created to enhance the roll out of “quality management” theories, philosophies, tools and tactics to be used in enhancing the culture of the logistics and supply chain processes within this organization. Quality management has proven successful in companies around the globe, creating results of improved business, specifically: manufacturing and production processes, cost controls and effective service enhancements. This program has the support of the executive management committee. Training will involve all employees beginning at the top, disseminating down to all levels of personnel so that each employee receives the same dedicated knowledge and learning experience to support the company’s business strategies.
History of Quality Management
Quality management has been a part of mankind perhaps as far back as twelfth century BC. The Chinese take credit for first developing their version of quality assurance during the Zhou Dynasty in twelfth century BC (Editorial Board, 2016). Egyptians built the pyramids in 2584 BC, specifically the Pyramid of Giza; still standing today. Henry Ford developed the first assembly line of automobiles during the Second Industrial Revolution in the early 1900’s; developing the preliminary fundamentals of quality practices we use today. The true quality management effort began in the 1950’s, shortly after the Japanese began rebuilding from the devastation of WW II. W. Edwards Deming, an engineer from MIT evaluated and developed a formal theory of principles that could be used in changing the way corporations, specifically manufacturing businesses, needed to operate to continue being productive and profitable. He discussed this with many American businessmen; however, they were all too confident in their way of doing business already in place.
Deming’s principles of management and improvement of quality and productivity theory, along with Juran and other, quality focused individuals, evolved over the years to the principle of “total quality management”. Total quality management (TQM) is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations. This can be integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company. TQM looks at the overall quality measures used by a company including managing quality design and development, quality control and maintenance, quality improvement, and quality assurance. TQM considers all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all company employees (Murray, 2015).
Why is Quality Needed
In today’s corporate world of global businesses, all companies must challenge themselves to do what is best for the company, their stakeholders, their employees, but most important, the customers who will keep them in business. The challenge is to develop and produce products (services) to meet the needs of the end consumer. Products and services that not only meet their needs but, exceed their expectations and deliver at a price that is reasonable. To this extent, it is an exciting challenge for all employees participating in this quality management training. A business culture change towards quality improvement will evolve where the business of logistics and supply chain management will prove successful.
By implementing a quality improvement initiative, ABC company will experience the following benefits: the company reputation will grow as it continues to produce better quality products and services to its customers, the company will experience revenue growth from more customer sales, the company will develop a greater competitive advantage in its marketplace, and the company will eventually have more satisfied customers based on service and product quality. Employees will be satisfied working for ABC company.
Role of Leadership
While working as the Manager of Sales Training for a $300 million-dollar sales and manufacturing organization, I found myself thrown right into the heart of the quality movement. It wasn’t long before I was spending more time in seminars and meetings pertaining to “quality theories” than I was, working on my own training concerns. Quality was now my only concern, and it would be detrimental to the entire organization as Human Resources personnel and training mangers from within all departments of the organization were in the midst of rolling out “quality management” and process improvement training and initiatives.
Strategic Impact and Leadership Roles
The quality movement was presented from the director of Human Resources, a face known to many, but unusual for a new program to be presented by someone lesser known than perhaps the president or even a vice president of the company. From the beginning it was laid out in a very organized format following W. Edwards Deming’s 14 Points of Quality Management. The Total Quality Management (TQM) theories involved not only Deming but discussions of Joseph Juran, Walter Shewhart, Philip Crosby and others in the movement. Our organization created our own version of Quality Productivity Improvement, simply known as QPI. From this point forward QPI in the organization was an understood acronym that many of us were a part of whether we wanted to be or not. Where did this all come from and who was going to continue pushing the movement? It was me, it was our Director of Human Resources, our Trainer in Manufacturing, our training departments from our sister companies, companies very similar to ours in the manufacturing and sales environment. There were many of us, but we were told to do it, it was now the way of doing business the new way of process improvements to be used in every department by every one of us.
There were leaders from within each department or division of business, but there was no “leader” for the movement itself. From the time the initial training ended it was left to the rest of us to build our own training format, focus on our segment of the business and to press forward the QPI movement for our company. Looking back on it all now, perhaps we had been empowered to conduct our own training principles based on what we had learned and how it would be used to best benefit our personnel in which we had training responsibilities. I wish I knew then what I now know today. I feel as though it would have made a vast difference as to how it all unfolded. I was fortunate to have directors over me that saw the vision of their upper management, the vision that had been handed down to the VPs and directors to make this quality program work.
I do believe that it would have been far more successful having seen and heard from our president exactly what he believed and how we would all become more successful through his vision. Too often, programs become diluted based on one person telling one person, who then tells two people, who then present it to a group. The program was successful in getting the word out, but it failed over a period of several years because there was no one at the top to provide constancy of purpose towards the quality message.
For this quality improvement initiative at ABC company, our leaders will function in various roles to ensure that the program of implementation is successful. Some of the roles include role model where the leaders will represent what they intend to see happen in the company relative to quality management. They will be in the trenches doing what it takes to make this company a quality-oriented company. They will also function as cheerleaders which implies that when we are looking for motivation and the fire to keep going, they will be cheering everyone on. Leaders will also be the coaches in the process. They will provide instructions for improvement and be the go-to-person when needed. Another function of their leadership role will include resource provider where they will provide all the necessary resources needed and required for this initiative. More than ever, we will be able to depend on our leaders in this company to lead this initiative to success.
Metrics of Performance
Much of what was just stated pertaining to success and failures will build future success. Failures, perhaps, create more success than success itself. Learning from failed process improvements, creates a new way, perhaps something never even attempted. You can’t put a measure on something never done before, but you can begin to build a base level of accomplishments and begin creating a measurement system based upon productivity levels, sales increase and customer service levels. Certainly, anything moving the needle up can be attributed to the quality movement. One of the biggest failures to quality is the cost of training employees on quality principles. Utilizing a scale of measurement to improvements made after quality initiatives have been put in place should outweigh any training costs associated with quality.
Strategies and Tools
Quality strategies and tools are useful, proven, methods that have supported businesses quality efforts over the past several decades. Many businesses have modified versions of philosophies; beginning with a basic methodology developed back in the 1970’s–80s “quality era”, known as the end of the first generation of quality and the beginning of the second era. Companies have evolved over the years using various versions from many programs based on how they perceive the effects on their customer. The customer is the main focus of any and all quality programs.
Strategies and tools have been designed to capture the market. You begin by understanding customer values and delivering products and services to meet and exceed their expectations. The strategies and tools are utilized to deliver a quality experience year after year in order to sustain business, keeping stakeholders happy.
How do you know what the customer wants? What they need? And, whether or not they are happy with the product or service your business has provided them? This is all predicated on what your business is offering. The company can build upon what they already deliver. Some companies have totally disbanded their product line, phasing it out over time in order to diversify themselves into a new market demand of the customer. Too often, customers don’t even know what they need, let alone what they want. It is difficult to determine this from the business point of view; however, there will be answers provided in this document. First, determining the customer’s expectations may be the beginning of the end result. Customer’s expectations are as different as the customers themselves. Each person values a product or service differently from another. To beat the competition, ABC Company must exceed its customer expectations (Editorial Board, 2016).
Designing Quality In
Businesses offer products that they have full knowledge and understanding of how the consumer uses them. Building quality into these products is to create a product that has features and benefits to meet the needs of the consumer, while adding additional offerings. At ABC Company, the objective is to ensure that customers receive a product and/or service that fully satisfies their need. Therefore, every process will comprise of specific quality check points throughout the process to ensure that at the end pr production, the service delivered and product purchased is a perfect product with zero defect.
The tools to define the metrics used in developing quality products or services are known as the tools for continuous improvement which include:
Flowcharts – Follows a step-by-step process of how the product is manufactured; or, how a service should be delivered. Flowcharts are best designed by those who are closest to the implementation processes of the product. Flowcharts provide a visual of just what sequence of events occurs.
Check sheets – These are data collecting sheets that interpret data as either attribute or variable. Attribute data is defined as visual quantification of an inspection of a product, EX: how many times a defect of a certain magnitude is found. Variable data is a measurement on a continuous scale, such as weight, distance or volume.
Histograms –a graphical representation of how often an issue occurs; it can be either a positive or negative issue. The graph shows which issues occur over a period of minutes, hours, days, weeks, etc. The purpose is to see if there is a pattern that can be altered in order to improve upon the procedure.
Pareto Diagram – This tool uses a prioritizing process as to which event in the process is most important and which, if corrected, can provide the biggest gain.
Cause-and-Effect Diagram – This is one of the most useful tools to identify cause and effects of a procedure. This has several other known names such as “cause and effects”, fishbone – due to the picture that is drawn out or Ishikawa- the Japanese quality expert who defined the term. The diagram simply outlines what the causes and effects are in the process.
Scatter Diagram – This diagram provides a relationship analysis between hypothesized cause and effects. A basic “X” – “Y” graph can show how an increase in one variable corresponds to the increase of another if it is graphed up and to the right or decrease in a variable if it is down and to the right. Scatter diagrams are not always prudent to the cause; however, it may provide clues of where improvements can be made.
Control Charts – Provide the opportunity of reviewing the process implementations and verifying those improvements are being made.
We will be using some of these quality control tools in a variety of ways with the business to define the measurements needed to ensure that decisions made are being made to improve processes and are focused on the customer. This will help ensure that the leadership team is taking the necessary steps to ensure quality management at all levels of the organization.
A process to avoid large production disasters, such as those found on assembly lines, is also known as “poka-yoke”. This term was developed by a Japanese engineer, Shiego Shingo, while producing Toyota automobiles. This is a mistake proofing process using automated devices or methods in order to avoid human error. This process is far more cost effective. Poka-yoke processes are also being built into manufacturing of certain products as a warning sign or as an enhanced safety feature; such as, warning sound in your car if the lights remain on, the key is in the ignition when you turn the car off or the car won’t start if seat belts aren’t secured.
Kaizen Methods of Quality
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