Respond to at least 2 of your peers by suggesting another teaching theory or philosophy that seems to align with their practice
BY DAY 6
Respond to at least 2 of your peers by suggesting another teaching theory or philosophy that seems to align with their practice.
Understanding a person and why they may engage in a certain behavior or a pattern of behavior can be a key factor when trying to help a person make positive steps toward making any kind of progress in their life. “Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasizes looking at the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual” (Mcleod, n.d., para.1). In working with people who are experiencing homelessness, the humanistic theory reaffirms focusing on the individual and not the problem. This theory is a constant reminder of even the little concepts such as social language. For example, using the phrase “homeless person” versus “a person struggling with homelessness”. The humanistic approach is a reminder that using the term “homeless person” can devalue that individual and labels them by what they are suffering from and not who they are as an actual human being. Single adults are the most affected group when it comes to experiencing homelessness according to National Alliance to end Homelessness (2021). The percentage of those single adults who are struggling with homelessness have also not completed their education. The challenge comes when being able to provide alternative opportunities to adults who are needing to complete their education so ultimately they are able to apply for employment.
According to Malcolm Knowles adult learners are vastly different from children in terms of their motivation, the relevancy of the education to their lives, and how they apply that education (Western Governors University, 2022). This concept is referred to as the andragogy theory which expresses the difference in how adults and children learn when it comes to education. A common aspect andragogy shares with the humanistic theory is that they are both focused on the needs of an individual. However, the difference in the andragogy theory is that it is focused on specifically the learning process of an adult and child within education. In working with people who are experiencing homelessness, the andragogy theory would only be beneficial to a certain extent while the humanistic theory would allow us to thoroughly understand why a person may be struggling with homelessness altogether whether it be lack of education, employment, etc. For example, if a person who is struggling with homelessness is looking for a job, identifying their level of education would be their first step which the andragogy theory would help but when it is time to go beyond the surface and understand why the person could not maintain a job, to begin with, this is where the humanistic theory gives room to explore further. Using the humanistic theory is what will be included moving forward with research in working with people struggling with homelessness. The humanistic theory allows for further research about a person; understanding their history, their family dynamics, their socio and psychological factors; understanding them as a whole person. The andragogy theory focuses on learning styles within education which can be very helpful in terms of trying to help a person struggling with homelessness finish their education.
Yet when it comes to teaching diverse learners I think both theories, humanistic and andragogy can both be beneficial. Both theories focus on helping a person make improvements in their life, andragogy is simply focused on the education piece while humanistic is the whole individual. One of the strengths of the andragogy theory is that it is focused on a specific area; education, while on the other hand humanistic theory is all aspects. The reason using the humanistic theory can be a challenge is that it can be difficult to focus on one area of improvement when looking at all facets. Whereas with the andragogy theory knowing that education is the focus we can narrow down what is needed for the individual to make positive changes with their education. Overall, both theories are beneficial and can be effective when utilized for a person who is in need.
Mcleod, S. (n.d.). Humanistic Approach in Psychology (humanism). https://www.simplypsychology.org/humanistic.html
National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH). (2021, April 1). Single Adults. National Alliance to End Homelessness. https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/who-experiences-homelessness/singleadults/ Links to an external site.
Western Governors University. (2022, August 17). 10 Simple Principles of Adult Learning. https://www.wgu.edu/blog/adult-learning-theories-principles2004.html Links to an external site.
Two Teaching Theories
Theory-driven research has been effective in teaching and learning practices (Walden University Library, n.d.-a). Within the teachings of Human Services, the social cognition concept is generative in learning cognitively and physically in integrating new information with existing knowledge (London & Diamante, 2018). This leads to a deeper understanding of instructional content of theoretical perspectives of a more in-depth instructional concept. With the physically, the learner is actively engaging in acquiring new knowledge. The brain serves as a model builder that generates meanings of information that makes sense to perceived reality (London & Diamante, 2018). I chose this theory based on how it goes more in depth of understanding knowledge that can be transformative as it relates to my prior major in biology.
Another theory within the confines of instruction is andragogy (adults) or Knowles’s theory of adult learning (London & Diamante, 2018). This derives from self-directed learners with motivation and encouragement to learn that is beneficial to job performance. The learning increases with immediate application in solving problems rather than just learning from topics. For learners that are mature, the evaluation of obtaining information is linked to learning from mistakes (London & Diamante, 2018). The generation of knowledge has processes of motivation, learning, knowledge, creation, and generation (common with the social cognition theory) through active engagement. Zorn-Arnold and Conaway (2016) addresses andragogy as a plan to assist human services educators in creating a syllabus to help students learn and identify challenges that adult learners face. This is also a great theory that helps a student become self-sufficient, yet I would prefer the social cognition theory in relation to the in-depth of understanding knowledge within the physical realm.
Rationale for inclusion or exclusion
As a rationale for inclusion, the social cognition theory is supported within multiple disciplines with students of all levels and ages as a group (London & Diamante, 2018). Within my rationale for exclusion, andragogy is more self-paced that is individualized for adult online learning that has faced the danger of being one sided model (Ekoto & Gaikwad, 2015). It is also ambiguous for distinction among child learners (pedagogy) and adults (Wang & Dennett, 2014).
Teaching Strengths and Limitations for Diverse Adults Learners
From the outcome of generative teaching, the social cognition theory is inclusive of all people that can also be transformative in learning on how to address new challenges and new goals (Alahmad, 2020). On the other hand, the social cognitive theory has limitations from ignoring the influence of genetics and hormonal influences in learning behaviors as an individual ages. Within andragogy, it is considered deficient in cultural, political, and social aspects of adult learning (Wang & Dennett, 2014). Yet, it has strength within the confines that specify mature, adult learning. Some may define “mature” in reference to older adults rather than younger ones.
Alahmad, Mana. (2020). Strengths and Weaknesses of Cognitive Theory. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences. 3, 1584-1593.
Ekoto, C., & Gaikwad, P. ( 2015). The Impact of Andragogy on Learning Satisfaction of Graduate Students. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(11), 1378-1386. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/3/11/6 Links to an external site.
London, M., & Diamante, T. (2018). The science of learning and development. Learning interventions for consultants: Building the talent that drives business. 25–45. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000094-003 Links to an external site.
Wang, V. & Dennett, S. (2014). Pedagogy vs Andragogy Organizations. In V. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Education and Technology in a Changing Society (pp. 318-330). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-6046-5.ch024 Links to an external site.
Walden University Library. (n.d.-a). Education theory: Education theoryLinks to an external site. . https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/subject/education/edtheor
Zorn-Arnold, B., & Conaway, W. (2016). The keys to online learning for adults: the six principles of andragogy, Part III. Distance Learning, 13(2), 1.
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