Explore Writing and Jobs: Creative Opportunities in the US
The field of creative writing offers a wide range of career opportunities for individuals who are passionate about the written word. From becoming an author or editor to exploring roles in advertising, teaching, and beyond, there are numerous paths for those interested in pursuing a writing career. With the rise of remote work and the increasing demand for online content, opportunities for freelance writers and remote writing jobs have also expanded. Let’s dive into the world of writing and jobs and explore the creative opportunities available in the US.
- Writing jobs offer a variety of career paths and opportunities for individuals passionate about writing.
- The demand for freelance writers and remote writing jobs has increased with the rise of remote work and online content.
- Creative writing provides the chance to explore roles in diverse fields such as advertising, teaching, and more.
- Pursuing a writing career can offer flexibility and the ability to work on projects aligned with personal interests.
- Exploring creative opportunities in writing can lead to a fulfilling and rewarding career.
Creative Writing Major: Developing Fundamental Skills
The Creative Writing major provides students with an opportunity to develop essential skills in the art of writing. Through a combination of writing workshops, literature courses, and classes in writing for other disciplines, students cultivate their creative abilities and strengthen their foundation in writing.
The major curriculum includes a variety of writing workshops, where students receive feedback on their work and engage in discussions with peers and instructors. These workshops allow students to explore different genres and styles of writing, from poetry and fiction to creative nonfiction and playwriting.
In addition to workshops, students also take literature courses, where they study and analyze works from various literary traditions. These courses provide a deeper understanding of storytelling techniques, narrative structures, and the historical context of literature.
Furthermore, the major offers courses that teach students how to apply their writing skills to other disciplines. These courses help students develop the ability to write effectively in fields such as journalism, business communication, technical writing, and more.
By completing the Creative Writing major, students gain a well-rounded writing education that prepares them for a range of career paths, including teaching, professional writing, publishing, and further graduate study. The comprehensive curriculum and hands-on learning opportunities equip students with the fundamental skills needed to succeed in the dynamic and ever-evolving field of writing.
Career Opportunities in Writing
Writing offers a multitude of career paths for those passionate about the written word. Whether you dream of becoming an author or an editor, or want to explore roles in advertising, teaching, or other fields, there are endless opportunities to pursue a successful writing career. Let’s delve into some of the exciting career options available to individuals with a strong foundation in writing.
As an author, you have the power to create captivating stories and immerse readers in your world. Whether you write novels, short stories, or nonfiction works, being an author allows you to express your creativity and share your unique perspective with the world. Through publishing your work, you can establish a dedicated readership and leave a lasting impact with your words.
An editor plays a crucial role in the writing process, working closely with authors to refine their work and ensure its quality. As an editor, you have the opportunity to shape and improve manuscripts, providing guidance on structure, grammar, and overall readability. With your keen eye for detail and strong command of language, you can help writers bring their ideas to life and help polish their work for publication.
If you have a passion for helping others hone their writing skills, a career as a writing coach might be the perfect fit. As a writing coach, you can guide aspiring writers, providing feedback, encouragement, and mentorship to help them develop their craft. You have the chance to inspire and nurture emerging talent, fostering their confidence and assisting them in reaching their full potential as writers.
|Advertising / Marketing Professional||Create compelling written content for advertising campaigns or marketing materials. Develop innovative strategies to engage target audiences and drive results.|
|Instructor||Teach writing workshops or courses, sharing your expertise and helping students develop their writing skills.|
|Ghostwriter||Write on behalf of others, capturing their voice and ideas to produce books, articles, or other written content.|
|Travel Writer||Explore new destinations and share your experiences through travel writing. Inform and inspire readers with your vivid descriptions and captivating storytelling.|
|Article Writer||Produce well-researched and engaging articles on a wide range of topics for online or print publications.|
|Columnist||Write regular columns for newspapers, magazines, or online platforms, sharing your unique perspectives and insights with readers.|
These are just a few examples of the diverse career opportunities available to individuals with a passion for writing. From video game writer to personal poet, playwright to technical writer, the possibilities are vast. Whether you choose to pursue a traditional writing path or explore niches in various industries, a career in writing can be both fulfilling and rewarding for those who have a way with words.
Job Opportunities for Creative Writing Graduates
Graduates with a Creative Writing degree have a wide range of job opportunities available to them. The versatility of a Creative Writing degree allows individuals to explore various fields and industries where strong writing skills are in demand. Here are some of the job opportunities that Creative Writing graduates can pursue:
- Content Writer: Creative Writing graduates can become content writers who create engaging and informative content for websites, blogs, and social media.
- Author: With a Creative Writing degree, graduates can pursue a career as an author, writing and publishing their own books and novels.
- Copywriter: Creative Writing graduates can work as copywriters, producing persuasive and compelling copy for advertisements, marketing campaigns, and product descriptions.
- Journalist: Graduates can enter the field of journalism, reporting news and writing articles for newspapers, magazines, and online publications.
- Travel Blogger: Creative Writing graduates with a passion for travel can become travel bloggers, sharing their experiences and insights through written content.
- Email Marketer: Graduates can work as email marketers, creating engaging email campaigns and newsletters for businesses and organizations.
- Editor: With their strong writing skills, Creative Writing graduates can pursue a career as an editor, proofreading and editing written content for publications, websites, and other platforms.
- Columnist: Graduates can become columnists, writing regular opinion pieces and articles for newspapers, magazines, and online platforms.
- Ghostwriter: Creative Writing graduates can work as ghostwriters, writing books, articles, or other written content on behalf of someone else.
- Songwriter: Graduates can explore opportunities in songwriting, crafting lyrics for musicians and collaborating on musical projects.
- Screenwriter: Creative Writing graduates can pursue a career in screenwriting, writing scripts for movies, television shows, and other visual media.
- Freelance Writer: Graduates can work as freelance writers, taking on various writing projects for clients and publications on a contract basis.
The job opportunities for Creative Writing graduates are diverse and offer creative individuals the chance to pursue their passion while building a successful career. Whether it’s writing for digital platforms, crafting compelling narratives, or producing persuasive marketing content, a Creative Writing degree opens doors to a world of possibilities in the writing industry.
Benefits of a Creative Writing Degree
Obtaining a Creative Writing degree provides individuals with several career advantages. The degree helps develop strong writing skills, versatility in various writing styles and genres, effective communication skills, critical thinking abilities, and storytelling expertise. These marketable qualities make graduates with a Creative Writing degree desirable candidates for a wide range of job opportunities in the writing industry and beyond.
A Creative Writing degree equips individuals with the necessary tools to excel in the field of writing. Through coursework and practical experience, students gain a deep understanding of the writing process, from brainstorming ideas to crafting compelling narratives. They learn how to engage readers, convey messages effectively, and captivate audiences with their words.
Moreover, a Creative Writing degree fosters critical thinking skills, enabling graduates to analyze and evaluate information critically. This skill is invaluable in many professions, as it allows individuals to approach complex problems, generate innovative solutions, and make informed decisions.
Furthermore, a Creative Writing degree nurtures storytelling abilities. Graduates are adept at crafting compelling narratives that resonate with readers or viewers. They understand how to build suspense, create memorable characters, and evoke emotions through their writing. These storytelling skills are highly sought after in industries such as marketing, advertising, and entertainment, where captivating storytelling is essential for engaging audiences.
|Benefits of a Creative Writing Degree|
|Strong writing skills|
|Versatility in various writing styles and genres|
|Effective communication skills|
|Critical thinking abilities|
The Importance of Creativity in the Workplace
Creativity plays a crucial role in the modern workplace, driving innovation, problem-solving, and fostering unique perspectives. It goes beyond simply thinking outside the box; it is about challenging conventional wisdom and approaching tasks and challenges with a fresh mindset. Companies value employees with creative abilities because they bring fresh ideas and new perspectives to the table, leading to enhanced job performance and the ability to find unique solutions.
When individuals tap into their creative thinking skills, they have the power to transform the way things are done, to push boundaries, and to create something new and exciting. Creative thinkers bring a sense of curiosity and exploration to their work, constantly seeking out new ways to solve problems and improve processes. By embracing a culture of creativity in the workplace, organizations can foster an environment that encourages and rewards innovative thinking.
Moreover, creativity in the workplace goes hand in hand with job satisfaction. When individuals can express their creativity and contribute their unique talents, they feel a sense of fulfillment and purpose in their work. This, in turn, leads to higher levels of motivation and engagement, resulting in increased productivity and overall job satisfaction.
“Creativity is intelligence having fun.” – Albert Einstein
Employers recognize the value of creative thinkers who can bring fresh ideas, unique perspectives, and innovative solutions to their organizations. By embracing creativity in the workplace, companies can foster a culture of innovation, enhance job performance, and create a more fulfilling work environment for their employees.
|Benefits of Creativity in the Workplace|
|Drives innovation and problem-solving|
|Fosters unique perspectives and fresh ideas|
|Enhances job performance and productivity|
|Boosts job satisfaction and employee engagement|
The Creative Process
The creative process is a dynamic journey that involves several stages, each contributing to the development and refinement of a creative project. It begins with inspiration, which sparks the generation of ideas. This initial stage is crucial as it sets the foundation for the entire creative process. Inspiration can be found in various sources, such as nature, art, literature, or personal experiences.
Once the ideas are formed, the planning stage begins. This involves organizing thoughts, outlining the structure, and establishing goals for the creative project. Planning helps creative workers find focus and use their time effectively. It allows them to set a clear direction and establish a roadmap for bringing their ideas to life.
After the planning stage, comes the assessment and revision phase. During this stage, creative workers evaluate their work, seeking feedback and making necessary adjustments to improve and refine their project. Assessment involves analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the work, ensuring that it aligns with the intended message or purpose. Revision allows for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of the creative project.
Finally, reflection is an essential part of the creative process. It involves analyzing the completed project, evaluating its success, and learning from the experience. Reflection helps individuals identify what worked well and what could be improved, enabling growth and development in future creative endeavors. It is an opportunity to gain insights, learn from mistakes, and apply newfound knowledge to future projects.
|Inspiration||The initial spark that fuels the generation of ideas.|
|Planning||Organizing thoughts, outlining the structure, and setting goals.|
|Assessment and Revision||Evaluating the work, seeking feedback, and making necessary adjustments.|
|Reflection||Analyzing the completed project and learning from the experience.|
Careers in the Arts: Artists and Related Workers
The world of arts offers a multitude of creative career opportunities for individuals who are passionate about self-expression and visual storytelling. Artists and related workers play a vital role in various industries, utilizing their artistic talents to create aesthetic pieces that capture beliefs, feelings, or ideas. From art directors and craft artists to fine artists and multimedia artists, the field of arts opens doors to endless possibilities.
“Art enables us to find ourselves and lose ourselves at the same time.” – Thomas Merton
Artists and related workers can be found in diverse mediums and industries, including advertising, publications, video games, theater, film, and more. They bring unique perspectives and creative flair to their work, breathing life into projects and captivating audiences with their imagination. Whether they’re designing stunning visuals, crafting intricate sculptures, or creating digital masterpieces, artists and related workers contribute to the world of art and leave a lasting impact.
|Art Directors||Advertising, Marketing|
|Craft Artists||Handmade Crafts, Galleries|
|Fine Artists||Painting, Sculpture, Drawing|
|Multimedia Artists||Animation, Film, Video Games|
Whether you dream of curating art exhibitions, designing visually stunning advertisements, or creating captivating digital experiences, a career in the arts allows you to express your creativity while making a meaningful impact on the world. By harnessing your artistic talents, you have the power to inspire, provoke thought, and evoke emotions through your unique creations.
Careers in Design: Designers
The world of design offers a multitude of exciting career opportunities for individuals with a passion for creativity and innovation. Designers play a crucial role in developing and implementing ideas for products and services, making their mark in industries such as fashion, graphic design, interior design, and more.
Commercial and Industrial Designers
Commercial and industrial designers are responsible for the creation of functional and visually appealing products. They work closely with clients, engineers, and manufacturers to bring concepts to life. Whether it’s designing consumer goods, packaging, or industrial equipment, commercial and industrial designers combine aesthetics with practicality to enhance the user experience.
Fashion designers are the creative minds behind the latest trends and styles. They conceptualize and create clothing, accessories, and footwear that reflect their artistic vision and resonate with consumers. Fashion designers work for fashion houses, retail brands, or start their own fashion lines, showcasing their talent and setting trends in the ever-evolving fashion industry.
Floral designers bring beauty and artistry to life through the arrangement of fresh flowers and plants. They create stunning floral displays for various occasions, including weddings, parties, and corporate events. With their keen eye for color, texture, and composition, floral designers create visually captivating arrangements that evoke emotion and enhance any space.
Graphic designers are experts in visual communication. They use their creativity and technical skills to design visually appealing graphics for print and digital media. From logos and branding materials to website layouts and marketing collateral, graphic designers help businesses effectively convey their messages and captivate their target audience through stunning visual elements.
Interior designers transform spaces into functional and aesthetically pleasing environments. They work closely with clients to understand their needs and preferences, and then create design plans that optimize the use of space, color, lighting, and furnishings. Interior designers can specialize in residential or commercial design, creating unique and inviting spaces that reflect the personal style of their clients or enhance the brand image of a business.
Set and Exhibit Designers
Set and exhibit designers are responsible for creating immersive environments for various industries, including theater, film, museums, and trade shows. They bring scripts, stories, or historical events to life through the design of sets, props, and exhibits. Set and exhibit designers combine their artistic skills with technical knowledge to create captivating and impactful experiences for audiences.
In summary, careers in design offer a wide range of opportunities for individuals with a passion for creativity and innovation. Whether it’s designing products, fashion, floral arrangements, graphics, interiors, or immersive experiences, designers have the power to bring ideas to life and make a lasting impact.
Careers in Media and Communication: Editors, Photographers, Writers
Media and communication offer a multitude of career options for individuals looking to channel their creativity into impactful work. Whether you have a passion for editing, photography, technical writing, or writing in general, there are diverse opportunities available in this field.
Editors play a pivotal role in shaping written content and ensuring its accuracy, clarity, and style. They work closely with authors, writers, and other professionals to refine and enhance a piece of writing, whether it’s a book, article, or online content. Editors comb through texts, checking for grammar and spelling errors, and ensuring consistency in language and tone. They also collaborate with writers to develop ideas and structure content effectively.
Photographers capture visual images that convey stories, evoke emotions, and communicate messages. Through their lens, they capture the essence of a moment, whether it’s for journalistic purposes, artistic expression, or commercial use. Photographers work across various industries, including media outlets, advertising agencies, and creative studios. They must have a keen eye for composition, lighting, and storytelling, allowing them to create compelling images that resonate with their audience.
Writers are the storytellers of the media and communication world, crafting engaging content that informs, entertains, and inspires readers. They can specialize in various forms of writing, such as journalism, technical writing, creative writing, or copywriting. Writers research, interview, and gather information to create compelling narratives that captivate their target audience. They are skilled at adapting their writing style to different platforms and mediums, whether it’s print publications, websites, or social media.
|Careers in Media and Communication|
|Editors||Ensure accuracy, clarity, and style of written content|
|Photographers||Capture visual images that convey stories and messages|
|Writers||Create engaging content for various platforms and mediums|
Whether you’re drawn to the precision of editing, the artistry of photography, or the power of words as a writer, careers in media and communication allow you to make a meaningful impact through creative expression. These roles offer opportunities to work in diverse industries, collaborate with talented individuals, and contribute to the ever-evolving landscape of media and communication.
Challenges and Rewards of Creative Work
Engaging in creative work comes with its own unique set of challenges and rewards. While it can be demanding and require a deep level of self-expression and personal growth, the rewards are often worth the effort. Let’s explore some of the challenges and rewards that come with pursuing a creative career.
Challenges of Creative Work
- Self-doubt: Creative individuals often face moments of self-doubt and uncertainty about their work. They constantly strive for perfection and may question the value of their creations.
- Failure and rejection: Creative work involves taking risks, and not every endeavor will be successful. Facing rejection and failure can be disheartening, but it is an inherent part of the creative process.
- Deadlines and pressure: Meeting deadlines and dealing with the pressures of delivering high-quality work can be stressful. Creative professionals often work under tight timelines, which can lead to feelings of pressure and burnout.
- Continuous learning: The creative industry is constantly evolving, and staying current requires ongoing learning and adaptation. Keeping up with new technologies, trends, and techniques is a necessary challenge for creative professionals.
Rewards of Creative Work
- Job satisfaction: The ability to engage in work that aligns with one’s passions and interests brings a deep sense of fulfillment and satisfaction. Creative individuals have the opportunity to pursue their artistic visions and make a lasting impact through their work.
- Self-expression: Creative work provides a platform for self-expression and allows individuals to communicate their thoughts, emotions, and perspectives in a unique and meaningful way. It offers an outlet for personal and artistic exploration.
- Personal growth: Engaging in creative work fosters personal growth by pushing individuals out of their comfort zones and challenging them to develop new skills and perspectives. It encourages continuous learning and expands one’s horizons.
- Work-life balance: Many creative careers offer flexibility in terms of work hours and location. This allows individuals to maintain a healthy work-life balance and pursue their passions while also tending to personal commitments and priorities.
Despite the challenges, the rewards of creative work make it a fulfilling and gratifying career choice. The ability to express oneself creatively, experience personal growth, and find satisfaction in the work produced outweigh the obstacles encountered along the way. By embracing these challenges and embracing the rewards, creative professionals can find success and fulfillment in their chosen paths.
Getting Started in a Creative Career
Embarking on a creative career can be an exciting and fulfilling journey. Whether you have a passion for writing, design, photography, or any other creative field, there are several key steps you can take to get started on the right path. Here are some essential elements to consider:
Education and Training
One of the first steps in pursuing a creative career is to gain the necessary education and training. Research programs and courses that align with your interests and goals. Whether you choose to pursue a formal degree or attend specialized workshops, investing in your education will provide you with a strong foundation and enhance your skills.
Networking is a crucial aspect of building a successful creative career. Connect with like-minded individuals, attend industry events, and join professional organizations that cater to your specific field. By building relationships with professionals and peers, you can gain valuable insights, mentorship, and potential job opportunities.
Building a Portfolio
A well-curated portfolio is essential for showcasing your skills and attracting potential clients or employers. Include a variety of your best work, highlighting your strengths and versatility in different creative projects. Regularly update your portfolio with new pieces and ensure it is easily accessible and visually engaging.
Consider freelancing as a way to gain experience, develop your skills, and establish a reputation in your field. Freelancing allows you to work on a variety of projects and build a network of satisfied clients. It also provides flexibility and the opportunity to explore different creative avenues before deciding on a specific career path.
By focusing on education, networking, portfolio building, and freelancing, you can kickstart your creative career and set yourself up for success. Remember to stay committed, nurture your creativity, and constantly seek new opportunities for growth and learning.
Resources for Exploring Creative Careers
When embarking on a creative career, it’s essential to have access to resources that can guide and support your journey. Fortunately, there are numerous avenues to explore, from industry associations to job boards, workshops, online courses, and professional development opportunities. These resources can provide valuable networking connections, job leads, skill enhancement, and career growth in the creative field.
Industry associations are a valuable resource for creative professionals. These organizations offer networking opportunities, industry-specific events, workshops, and access to valuable resources. By joining an industry association relevant to your creative field, you can connect with like-minded individuals, gain insights into industry trends, and build valuable relationships that can open doors to new opportunities.
Job boards dedicated to creative careers can be an excellent source for finding job listings and freelance opportunities. Websites like CreativeJobsCentral, Behance, and ArtsThread feature postings specifically tailored to creative professionals. Regularly checking these job boards can help you stay updated with the latest opportunities in your field and take the next step in your creative career.
Workshops, Online Courses, and Professional Development
Continual learning and skill enhancement are crucial in the ever-evolving creative industry. Workshops and online courses offer opportunities to learn new techniques, stay updated with industry trends, and develop in-demand skills. Additionally, investing in professional development activities, such as attending conferences or obtaining certifications, can enhance your credibility and expand your career prospects in the creative field.
|Industry Associations||Organizations dedicated to specific creative fields, offering networking opportunities, events, workshops, and resources.|
|Job Boards||Websites featuring job listings and freelance opportunities tailored for creative professionals.|
|Workshops and Online Courses||Learning opportunities to acquire new skills, stay updated with industry trends, and enhance creativity.|
|Professional Development||Activities such as conferences and certifications that contribute to career growth and credibility.|
By leveraging these resources, you can expand your network, access job opportunities, enhance your skills, and stay current in the ever-changing landscape of the creative industry. Utilize these valuable resources to navigate your creative career path and unlock the full potential of your creative talents.
Exploring the world of writing and jobs opens up a realm of creative opportunities. A writing career offers various paths, from becoming an author or editor to exploring roles in advertising, teaching, and beyond. With the rise of remote work and the increasing demand for online content, opportunities for freelance writers and remote writing jobs have also expanded. Whether you’re a seasoned writer or just starting out, the field of creative writing provides a diverse range of career options to suit your interests and goals.
A creative writing degree equips individuals with the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in the writing industry. From developing fundamental writing skills to honing creativity and critical thinking, a degree in creative writing opens doors to a wide range of job opportunities. Graduates can pursue careers as authors, journalists, copywriters, or even travel bloggers. The versatility of a creative writing degree allows individuals to explore various fields and industries where strong writing skills are in demand.
By harnessing creativity and pursuing their passions, individuals can embark on a fulfilling writing career filled with endless possibilities. Whether it’s crafting captivating stories, influencing through persuasive writing, or educating and inspiring others, the world of writing and job opportunities offers a fulfilling and rewarding path. So, if you have a passion for writing and a desire to create, don’t hesitate to dive into the world of creative opportunities and make your mark in the writing industry.
What career opportunities are available in the field of creative writing?
The field of creative writing offers a wide range of career opportunities, including becoming an author, editor, writing coach, advertising or marketing professional, instructor, ghostwriter, travel writer, article writer, columnist, video game writer, personal poet, playwright, blogger, technical writer, website content writer, proofreader, speech writer, public relations specialist, screenwriter, librarian, researcher, and grant writer.
What job opportunities are available for graduates with a Creative Writing degree?
Graduates with a Creative Writing degree can pursue careers as content writers, authors, copywriters, journalists, travel bloggers, email marketers, editors, columnists, ghostwriters, songwriters, screenwriters, and freelance writers.
What are the benefits of obtaining a Creative Writing degree?
Obtaining a Creative Writing degree provides individuals with strong writing skills, versatility in various writing styles and genres, effective communication skills, critical thinking abilities, and storytelling expertise. These marketable qualities make graduates with a Creative Writing degree desirable candidates for a wide range of job opportunities.
Why is creativity important in the workplace?
Creativity is highly valued in the workplace as it fosters innovative thinking, problem-solving abilities, and unique perspectives. Individuals with creative abilities are often able to approach tasks and challenges from different angles, leading to enhanced job performance and the ability to find unique solutions.
What is the creative process?
The creative process involves several stages, starting with inspiration and the generation of ideas. From there, the process moves into planning, assessment, revision, and reflection. Planning helps creative workers find focus and use their time effectively, while assessment and revision allow for the improvement and refinement of creative projects. Reflection helps individuals learn from their creative endeavors and apply those lessons to future projects.
What are some careers in the arts?
Careers in the arts encompass a wide range of creative opportunities, including artists, art directors, craft artists, fine artists, and multimedia artists. They work in various mediums and industries, including advertising, publications, video games, theater, and film.
What are some careers in design?
Careers in design include commercial and industrial designers, fashion designers, floral designers, graphic designers, interior designers, and set and exhibit designers. These professionals use their creativity to create practical and aesthetically pleasing designs in various industries.
What are some careers in media and communication?
Careers in media and communication include editors, photographers, technical writers, and writers/authors. These professionals play a vital role in shaping written content, capturing visual images, and conveying messages effectively to their audience.
What are the challenges and rewards of creative work?
While creative work can be rewarding, it also comes with its own set of challenges. The creative process can be demanding and require a high level of self-expression and personal growth. However, the ability to engage in work that aligns with one’s passions and interests can lead to high job satisfaction. Creative work also offers the potential for a flexible work-life balance and the opportunity for continuous learning and growth.
How can I get started in a creative career?
To get started in a creative career, individuals can pursue education and training in their chosen field, whether through a degree program or specialized courses. Networking is crucial in the creative industry, as it allows individuals to connect with professionals and potential clients. Building a portfolio of work is essential for showcasing skills and attracting opportunities. Freelancing can be a viable option for individuals looking to gain experience and establish a reputation in their field.
What resources are available for exploring creative careers?
There are various resources available for individuals interested in exploring and pursuing creative careers. Industry associations provide valuable networking opportunities and resources specific to the creative industry. Job boards and online platforms offer job listings and freelance opportunities. Workshops and online courses can enhance skills and provide additional training. Engaging in professional development activities can help individuals stay current in their creative field and expand their career opportunities.